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啥么是独立主格请举例

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啥么是独立主格
请举例
独立主格
[编辑本段]独立主格结构
(一):独立主格的概念
“独立主格结构”是由名词或代词作为逻辑主语,加上分词、形容词、副词、动词不定式或介词短语作为逻辑谓语构成.这种结构在形式上与主句没有关系,通常称为“独立主格结构”.
(二):独立主格的功能
“独立主格结构”实质就是带有自己主语的非限制性状语从句.众所周知非限制性从句通常以主句的某一成分作为自己的逻辑主语,从而依附于主句.而有些非限制性从句和无动词从句带有自己的主语,在结构上与主句不发生关系,因此成为独立主格结构.其实,虽然叫做独立主格结构,并不是真正的独立,它还是一种从属分句,在句中有多种作用.如:表原因、表条件、表方式、表伴随、表时间等,在句中通常起状语作用.
独立主格结构主要用于描绘性文字中,其作用相当于一个状语从句,常用来表示时间、原因、条件、行为方式或伴随情况等.例如:
1) 表示时间
The meeting being over, all of us went home. 开完会后我们都回家了.
Her work done, she sat down for a cup of tea. 她干完了活,坐下来喝茶.
2) 表示条件
The condition being favorable, he may succeed. 若条件有利,他或许能成功.
3) 表示原因
There being no taxis, we had to walk. 没有出租车,我们只好步行.
He wrapped her up with great care, the night being dark and frosty. 夜又黑又冷,所以他把她裹得严严实实的.
4) 表示伴随情况
Almost all metals are good conductors, silver being the best of all. 几乎所有的金属都是良导体,而银则是最好的导体.(=Almost all metals are good conductors,
and silver is the best of all.)
(三): 独立主格结构的构成:
名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词;
名词(代词)+形容词;
名词(代词)+副词;
名词(代词)+名词
名词(代词)+不定式;
名词(代词) +介词短语构成.
(四) 独立主格结构的特点:
(1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在.
2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词存在逻辑上的主谓关系,即逻辑主语为动作执行者.
3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开.
举例:(一)
1) 名词/代词+形容词
The men moved slowly forward, neck deep in the water, with their officers guiding them.
It stood silent in the noon sunlight, its door open.
2) 名词/代词+现在分词
Winter coming, it gets colder and colder. 冬天来了,天气越来越冷了.
The rain having stopped, he went out for a walk. 雨停了,他出去散步.
The question being settled, we wound up the meeting. 问题解决之后,我们结束了会议.
3) 名词/代词+过去分词
“Marquis,” said the boy, turning to the man, his eyes opened wide, and his right hand raised.
4) 名词/代词(主格)+不定式
We shall assemble at ten forty-five, the procession to start moving at precisely eleven. 我们十点四十五分集合,队伍十一点准时出发.
Here are the first two volumes, the third one to come out next month. 这是前两卷,第三卷将于下月问世.
We divided the work, he to clean the windows and I to sweep the floor. 我们进行了分工,他擦窗户,我扫地.
The two boys said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go to his friend’s. 两个男孩彼此道了别,一个回了家,另一个去了他朋友家.
5) 名词/代词+介词短语
I followed him here, climbed in, sword in hand.
The huntsman entered the forest, gun in hand. 那位猎人手里提着枪走进了树林.
He sat at the table, coat off, head down, and pen in hand.
6) 名词/代词+副词
Nobody in, the thief took a lot of things away.
Lunch over, he left the house. But he was thinking.
7) 名词/代词+名词
he fought the wolf, a stick his only weapon. 他和狼搏斗着,唯一的武器是一根棍棒.
(二)
The test finished, we began our holiday.
= When the test was finished, we began our holiday.
考试结束了,我们开始放假.
The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
= After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中.
Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.
如果天气允许,我们明天去看你.
This done, we went home.
工作完成后,我们才回家.
The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier.
会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家.
He came into the room, his ears red with cold.
他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了.
He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.
他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆
2. With的复合结构作独立主格
表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用with的复合结构.
with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语
举例: He stood there, his hand raised.
= He stood there, with his hand raised【raising亦可】.
使用独立主格四点注意:

1.独立主格与状语从句的转换当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不是指同一个对象时,可用独立主格结构取代状语从句,但不再保留连词.如:After class was over (=Class being over / Class over), the students soon left the classroom.下课后,学生很快离开了课室.
2. 不能省略being (having been)的情形在下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的being(或having been)不能省略.
(1) 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时.如:It being Sunday, we went to church.因为是星期天,我们去了做礼拜.
(2)在There being+名词的结构中.如:There being no bus, we had to go home on foot.因为没有公共汽车,所以我们不得不步行回家.
3. 通常不用物主代词或冠词在“名词(或代词)+介词短语”构成的独立主格结构中,一般不用形容词性物主代词和冠词.如: Miss Smith entered the classroom, book in hand.史密斯小姐走进了课室,手里拿着一本书.比较with的复合结构.如:Miss Smith entered the classroom, with a book in his hand.
4. 独立主格结构没有所有格形式The chief-editor arriving, we began the meeting. 主编来了,我们开始开会.(比较动名词复合结构.)
独立主格结构的用法
独立主格结构主要表示谓语动词发生的时间、原因、条件或伴随情况等,相当于一个状语从句或并列句.
1. 用作时间状语:The work done (=After the work had been done), we went home. 工作完成后,我们就回家了.
2. 用作条件状语:Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游.
3. 用作原因状语:An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. 因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教授不得不熬夜到很晚.
4. 用作伴随状语:He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head (=and his hands were crossed under his head).他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕在脑后.
5.表示补充说明:We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two. 我们加倍努力,一个人干两个人的活.
*注:独立主格结构表示时间、条件或原因时,相当于一个状语从句,一般放在句首,表示原因时还可放在句末;表伴随状况或补充说明时,相当于一个并列句,通常放于句末.
[编辑本段]典型例题
The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back.
A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied
答案D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构.当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用with来引导.由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选D.
注意:
1) 独立主格结构使用介词的问题:
当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数.但 with 的复合结构不受此限制
A robber burst into the room, knife in hand.
( hand前不能加his).
2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,用现在分词表主动,用过去分词表被动.
He lay there, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up.
他握着拳头,眼睛直视地躺在那儿.
解析:拳头被握所以用过去分词表被动,眼睛直视是主动的所以用现在分词表示来修饰.
注意:不可断章取义地根据动词是否为及物动词来判断是否采用过去分词或现在分词!
典型例题:
Weather___, we'll go out for a walk.
A permitted B permitting C permits D for permitting
答案B. 本题中没有连词,它不是复合句,也不是并列句. 句中使用了逗号,且we 小写,可知其不是两个简单句.能够这样使用的只有独立主格或with的复合结构.据此判断,本句中使用的是独立结构, 其结构为:名词+分词. 由于permit在这里翻译为'天气允许',表主动,应用现在分词,故选B.
如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可.
独立主格结构妙题赏析
请看下面一道题:
Not far from the school there was a garden, _________ owner seated in it playing chess with his little grandson every afternoon.
A. its B. whose C. which D. that
【分析】此题很容易误选B,许多同学会认为句中逗号后是一个非限制性的定语从句,whose 在定语从句中用作定语修饰其后的名词 owner.此分析从表面上看,似乎天衣无缝,但实质上是错的,原因是空格后根本不是一个句子,因为没有谓语.尽管句中有两个动词,但它们都是非谓语动词.也许有的同学认为,其中的 seated 可视为谓语动词,但是注意,seat 用作动词时,它总是及物的,其后要么接宾语,要么它就用于被动语态,所以若在 seated 前加上助动词 is,则可以选择B(当然若将 seated 改为sitting,也应选择B).所以此题最佳答案选A.
请再看一个类似的例子:
(1) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ translated into foreign languages.
A. it B. them C. this D. that
(2) He wrote a lot of novels, many of _________ were translated into foreign languages.A. it B. them C. which D. that
第(1)应选B,而不能选C,是因为句中的 translated 是过去分词(非谓语动词),若选C,则该从句无谓语;第(2)应选C,因为句中有谓语 were translatedC.
再请看下面一例:
(3) He wrote a lot of novels, and many of _________ were translated into foreign languages.
A. it B. them C. which D. that
【分析】此题与上面的第(2)题不同,两句间多了一个并列连词and,说明这是一个并列句,故应选B,则不能选C.
请做做以下三题(答案均为B):
(1) There I met several people, two of _________ being foreigners.
A. which B. them C. whom D. that
(2) There I met several people, two of _________ were foreigners.
A. which B. whom C. who D. that
(3) There I met several people, and two of _________ were foreigners.
A. which B. them C. whom D. that